ABOUT THE PRODUCTION
 

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This page was last updated on October 22, 2003


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ABOUT THIS FILM

The Director
PHILIP SAVILLE
Veteran director Philip Saville attributes the challenge of bringing THE GOSPEL OF JOHN to the screen, word for word, as the key factor in his decision to participate in this unique project. Throughout the course of the film, he discovered that benefits existed in working on text that cannot be changed and found the number of ways that the sentences could be interpreted through performance to be surprising. Yet the experience was not without some frustration, as both Saville and screenwriter, John Goldsmith, were acutely aware that the text could not be modified in any way.

Comments Saville, "We would both admire and curse the fact that we couldn't change a single word, not even a preposition. Many times I would throw up my hands in the air and say this is really too much, particularly when you had a wonderful performance by an actor who said 'and' instead of 'then' or 'but' instead of 'the." We kept our fingers crossed every time for the actors at least to say the words as they were scripted."

In addition to offering him the opportunity to work on a project unlike anything he had ever undertaken before, directing the film also allowed him to present a cinematic translation of a well-known story whose key messages resonate as strikingly as they did when first recounted more than 2,000 years ago.

Notes Saville, "In a way it was a very personal, almost selfish experience. It has a good message that ultimately being good is more powerful than being bad. That said, the notion that I would really like people to take away from seeing this film is re-establishing the belief in love for others."

Undoubtedly, the casting of the role of Jesus was of paramount importance, with Saville wanting an actor who embodied the fervour, drama, charisma and elegance that personify the Son of God in the Gospel of John. Saville found all of these qualities, and more, in the person of Royal Shakespeare Company actor Henry Ian Cusick, whom the director simply describes as "astonishing." States Saville, Even if I was to cast somebody world famous in the role, I wouldn't exchange Henry Ian Cusick."


The Screenplay
JOHN GOLDSMITH
Visual Bible's THE GOSPEL OF JOHN has been adapted for the screen on a word for word basis from the American Bible Society's Good News Bible. The important task of translating it into a screenplay that would illuminate, yet remain true to the text, was assigned to award-winning screenwriter John Goldsmith. Through extensive research and consultation with the film's Advisory Committee, Goldsmith crafted a sensitive screenplay of one of the Bible's most beloved texts, neither adding not omitting complex passages or additional words.

Goldsmith welcomed the challenge of translating THE GOSPEL OF JOHN onto the screen. Well versed in the text, he felt that he could work within the confines of the word for word mandate and was excited about the possibility of turning the text into a readily accessible visual medium.

Transforming the written text into a screenplay that would authentically recreate the Gospel provided a number of technical writing challenges for Goldsmith. While mandated to remain faithful to the each and every word, Goldsmith was also charged with delivering a script that would both engage and entertain the film's audience.

Explains Goldsmith, "When you have to follow something word for word and have to make it cinematic, you have to reinvent it, but within the parameters of what is orthodox and academically acceptable. You can't invent visual images which are out of keeping, or blasphemous, so there is an element of constraint. While researching commentaries and academic theses on it, I came across a wonderful phrase which said THE GOSPEL OF JOHN is strange, restless, mysterious, poetic and, in a way, otherworldly. It's the most theological of all the gospels, the most poetic and the least concerned with earthly things."

A further challenge identified by Goldsmith in writing the screenplay was how to ascribe long passages of text without losing the audience's attention.

Notes Goldsmith, "Towards the end of the Last Supper, Jesus talks for about five chapters. They're called the farewell discourses because he's basically saying goodbye. Even when using the wondrous words of the Bible, you really can't have a man talking for 20 minutes. The first idea I had was to keep them (the disciples) on the move. There's a wonderful moment where Jesus says 'let us leave this place.' So we were able to move them out of the upper room and out of Jerusalem, so immediately you have a valid filmic tool to use."

Taking his cue from the text itself, Goldsmith's screenplay portrays Jesus in a uniquely human fashion. According to Goldsmith, the Jesus that appears in THE GOSPEL OF JOHN is an inspired and incandescent individual, very much a man, yet most certainly the son of God. Observes Goldsmith," He comes over as a very ordinary, pure kind of man."

Of equal importance was Goldsmith's desire to define the individual characters of the disciples who, in previous biblical films, have often been indistinguishable from one another. As Jesus is portrayed as a human being with his own characteristics and attributes, so would his followers. With half of the disciples unnamed and few of them reciting lines, it was essential that they be identifiable from the script.

Concludes Goldsmith, "I have never seen a film like this before. As it's turned out, I think it's something quite unique and really very special."

The Narrator
CHRISTOPHER PLUMMER
Internationally acclaimed Canadian actor Christopher Plummer welcomed the opportunity to participate in the word-for-word version of THE GOSPEL OF JOHN as the film's narrator. No stranger to the genre of Biblical cinema, Plummer cites numerous other biblical films among those which he has both viewed and enjoyed. According to Plummer, however, this version of John differs dramatically from all that preceded it in its use of highly trained actors whose roots derive from the classical stage.

"I've watched other films such as THE GREATEST STORY EVER TOLD, and now, THE GOSPEL OF JOHN. Certainly this is the best I've ever seen. While we all know the story of Jesus Christ and the Gospel of John, I was absolutely riveted to the story in the film. For many, it's part of their childhood, yet for the first time it seemed totally fresh and new to me."

Plummer credits the cast and director, Philip Saville, with producing a highly unique and distinctly human version of this beloved text. "The film had terrific actors, both Canadian and English, who played superbly together in an ensemble fashion. I've never seen the part of Jesus Christ played so unselfconsciously, so absolutely real and with such incredible magical charm. He really does captivate. There's not one note of piety in him, nor one note of sentimentality. He can afford to be angry when he wants to, yet he's always passionate. The fire in the actors' eyes appears as if they've been lit up from within. A lot of it is due not only to their talent, of course, but to Phillip Saville, my old friend with whom I worked in Britain years ago."

Continues Plummer, "Philip has a wonderful way of moving the cameras and I think he is probably the best television director to ever come out of England. Philip really ruled television and did the best quality work that came out of the BBC. His camera is constantly in motion, with each scene weaving beautifully and gracefully from one into the other. Riveting to watch, it's as if the whole thing is being shot in one long camera movement. "

With the narration interwoven into the story, Plummer felt very much a part of the ensemble cast, in spite of the fact that he never visually appears on screen. While approaching the role as if he were physically among the cast, Plummer made certain that he maintained the appropriate distance from the action of the story. Observes Plummer, "In a strange way, the narrator is really the second lead. As the wall-to-wall narration is interspersed with the action, I felt very much a part of the ensemble. The narrator has to come in as if he is just another disciple, watching it all happen. Most importantly, he must not intrude, as some narrators do. He's got to be modest, and treat the story slightly dispassionately, in order that the sentiment belongs to those who are playing on the screen."

In the process of narrating the film, Plummer's interest was piqued by this particular version of the Gospel of John and the beauty of its prose. Notes Plummer, "It was very interesting to read the new Bible, as I'm used to reading the grand poetry of the King James version, which tends to roll off the tongue far more easily than the modern one does. This version is written in prose, not poetry, giving it a slight staccato sensibility and contemporary feel about the speech. It's dealing with huge themes in a very contemporary way. There are some magnificent passages in there, and magnificent language."

Plummer believes that the messages contained in the film have tremendous validity for today's audiences, and that they still resonate with undeniable clarity more than 2,000 years later. Comments Plummer, "The faith that is talked about in this film is vivid for all viewers, no matter what religion they are. The audience will undoubtedly be struck by the reminder of words spoken two thousand years ago such as 'love thy neighbour', and 'forgive them their evil,' which sadly haven't been upheld. That was the most important thing that came about as result of this film -- the simple words that have been neglected for so long. They're almost too simple."

The Costumes
DEBRA HANSON
The task of recreating clothing that would accurately depict the costume of the period went to award-winning artist and designer Debra Hanson. A veteran of the prestigious Canadian Stratford Festival, Hanson immediately began researching the period.

As little visual evidence exists of what clothing was like during the time of Jesus, Hanson relied on comprehensive research as well as consultation with the Advisory Committee, to determine how the garments should appear.

As it was imperative that the costumes be historically accurate, textures of fabrics, weaving techniques, colours, dye samples, dye plants and colour palette were all taken into consideration.

Hanson presented archaeological research, costume sketches and dye samples in a range of colours to the Advisory Committee. She also worked closely with Emmy® Award winning production designer Don Taylor to ensure that the individual colour palettes designed for both the sets and costumes would be complimentary.

Hanson and her team were responsible for creating costuming for approximately 80 key cast members, some of whom required multiple costumes. By the film's completion, they had dressed a cast of nearly 2500.

While designing for THE GOSPEL OF JOHN, Hanson was mindful that she was creating clothing that would be worn by universally revered characters from the scriptures. "I think that the challenge was the characters are major icons of western culture, so the pressure was to do them in a way that is both historically correct, but also fits in with iconic images. One would think it would be easy, but indeed, it is not. In film, an actor brings his physicality and his interpretation from the director. To help that and to create something that people totally accept as being right and real, while at the same time putting it in terms of a particular film and concept, is difficult."

"When you think of Jesus Christ, Mary Magdalene, Mary Mother of Jesus or John the Baptist, you have to create a physical expression of this -- a visual signal that is correct. It's not always derived from looking at Renaissance paintings. The joy is to see it come to fruition in physical, three dimensional terms. To believe it, knowing that it has all the echoes of the iconic images," explains Hanson.

SET DESIGN
Unique in its approach, and unstinting in its ambition to accurately portray the ancient world, the production design was carried out in consultation with a broadly based and highly esteemed academic and theological Advisory Committee. In particular, painstaking research went into the architectural settings, set decoration and props for the film.

Award-winning Production Designer Don Taylor embraced the ambitious task of recreating the physical world at the time of Christ, spending countless hours scouting locations, sourcing items that would aptly replicate those prevalent in Biblical times, Taylor researched everything from the types of materials that were available in those days to how the stones would be cut. Taylor worked hand in hand with the Advisory Committee to guarantee his research and vision was correct.

Taylor recommended various locations in Southern Spain for the exterior scenes, the site of David Lean's Lawrence of Arabia, which has the only desert in Europe, and remains much as it did in the ancient era. The topography included beautiful beaches that could be used in key scenes like the one where Jesus appears to his disciples for the third time after his resurrection, and rocky plains, where the production team was able to set up the crucifixion scene. To further convince him that Spain was the perfect locale, he stumbled upon deserted ancient dwellings that could be enhanced to provide a sense of realism that would otherwise have to be built in studio. Peter Richardson, the chair of the Advisory Committee, and himself an architect and archaeologist familiar with the topography and architecture of ancient Jerusalem and its surrounding area, agreed with Taylor's suggestions.

With one team working to create an ancient environment in Spain, a second team was in a studio in Toronto, concurrently building 15 sets for the interior sequences. Taylor was traveling back and forth to ensure a synergy existed between both teams and that the interior sets would match perfectly with those in Europe.

In Spain, the set designers flooded a dry riverbed near Almeria to create the River Jordan, for the scene where John the Baptist foretells the coming of "the Lamb of God." In Toronto, they created the Gihon Spring where "The Farewell Discourses" occur. In Spain, they agonized over whether the dice that were thrown by the Roman soldiers at the foot of the cross should be constructed from ebony or ivory, and whether the dice should be perfectly square or with rounded corners. In Toronto, they carefully determined the setting for the marriage at Cana, and the type of water pitchers used when Jesus turns water into wine.

Special blacksmiths were retained to recreate the hammers and nails used for the crucifixion. An Italian company that specializes in recreations of ancient artifacts was consulted about the types of swords that the soldiers carried. Everything from the shape and composition of the dishes to the items available for sale at the market were carefully researched by Taylor and his team. No detail, no matter how small was insignificant.

Once the exterior scenes were complete, the production moved to Toronto. The filming took place in one of Canada's largest film studios, which at 40,000 square feet was remarkably transformed into a bustling Jerusalem and the surrounding area. Each set, from the Temple, which figures significantly in the market scene with Jesus, and the Roman Praetorium, where Pilate deliberates Jesus' fate was visually impressive and historically accurate.

Perhaps most impressive however, is the manner in which the audience is drawn into antiquity by way of the production design team's meticulous creation of Jesus' physical environment. To quote one of the actors, "it felt as though we were truly living in the biblical era."

Taylor's attention to detail is reflected in a breathtaking production that sets a high standard for films depicting ancient times.

MUSIC
Inspired by an ancient world and deftly blending with the instruments of our modern era, the score to THE GOSPEL OF JOHN brings the music of the biblical world to life.

Orchestrated and conducted by internationally-renowned conductor, Nicholas Dodd, with the Philharmonia Orchestra of London, Composer Jeff Danna's score incorporates an eclectic and evocative mix of early and modern instruments.

After extensive research for almost one year into ancient instruments, the role of music in ancient culture, and the sounds that were most prevalent during the time Jesus lived, Music Supervisor Stephen Cera and Composer Jeff Danna embarked on a fascinating musical journey.

As meticulous as the producers were in ensuring the accuracy of the architecture, costumes and text, so too were Cera and Danna in creating the music.

Internationally-renowned Egyptian percussionist, Hossam Ramzy applied himself to an extraordinarily diverse battery of percussion instruments all of which originated in the ancient world. Among them were early precursors of the tambourine (sistrum and timbrels), ancient lutes, as well as a full range of drums of different pitches.

French soprano Esther Lamandier, who is one of the world's foremost performers of reconstructions of ancient Hebraic music, performs Aramaic chants that are woven throughout the musical text. The provenance of these chants is the closest chronological approximation to the time the Gospel was written. Sung in the language of Jesus, Ms. Lamandier's contribution figures significantly in the film's musical score.

Included in the instrumentation are ancient harps known as psalteries, the rabab, a bowed, three-string fiddle of Byzantine or Arabic origin, and -- perhaps most importantly for the film -- the ney, an ancient flute originating in the Middle East and North Africa and dating from the 3rd millennium BC. A variety of neys were utilized, ranging in size from 30 centimeters to about 80 centimeters in length, providing corresponding shifts in pitch range and timbres that result from changes in dimension. Historically, the ney was used to induce states of trance or ecstasy.

Given the formidable Roman influence on the period which the film depicts, it was essential that a corresponding musical element be woven into the score. Although little is known about the music of ancient Rome and virtually no Roman music manuscripts remain; archaeological evidence of musical instruments does exist.

Knowing the influences on Rome, the territories that they conquered and the various cultures that would have influenced the Romans, Cera and Danna enlisted Praecones Britanniae, a group that specializes in evocations of ancient Roman times. The sessions with Praecones Britanniae revealed still more instruments that could be used musically to convey this period of Roman occupation.

One of the instruments that figures heavily in the score is the shofar. Best-known within the Jewish community, the shofar is sounded on the High Holidays of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. An important "signaling" instrument, it is the only ancient Hebrew instrument still actively in use today. Dating from thousands of years ago and constructed from a ram's horn, the shofar's distinctive resonance helps evoke a time and a place of timeless historical and religious significance.

Advisory Committee

ALAN SEGAL B.A., B.A.H.L., M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Dr. Alan F. Segal is Professor of Religion and Ingeborg Rennert Professor of Jewish Studies at Barnard College, Columbia University. When appointed, he was the youngest full professor in the humanities in the university. Dr. Segal served as chair of the Department between 1981 -1985, and occasionally thereafter.

He was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, and educated at Worcester Academy, Amherst College (B.A. 1967), Brandeis University (M.A. 1969), Hebrew Union College -- Jewish Institute of Religion (B.A.H.L. 1971) and Yale University (M.A. 1971, M.Phil. 1973, Ph.D.1975). His studies included English Literature, Psychology, Anthropology, Comparative Religion, Judaica, Christian Origins and Rabbinics.

Prior to moving to Columbia University, Professor Segal was appointed to Princeton University for two three-year terms starting in 1974, and to the University of Toronto with tenure, which he received in 1977, three years after beginning his teaching career.

While living in Israel in 1977-1978 on a Guggenheim Fellowship, he lectured at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv University and Bar Ilan University. He has served as a guide on trips to Egypt, Turkey and Israel and traveled extensively in Europe. He has held fellowships from the Woodrow Wilson Foundation, the American Council of Learned Societies, the National Endowment for the Humanities, The Annenberg Institute, the J.S. Guggenheim Foundation and the A.W. Mellon Foundation.

In the summer of 1988 at the Jubilee Celebration in Cambridge, England, he became the first Jewish member of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas to address the society. He was elected into membership of the American Society for the Study of Religion and the American Theological Society. Dr. Segal was also the first American to be elected president of the Canadian Society for Biblical studies while living abroad. He is Chair of the History of Religions Committee of the American Academy of Religion and a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Biblical Literature.

A prolific author, Dr. Segal has written numerous books and articles on a variety of religious subject matter. His most recent work, Life After Death: The History of the Afterlife in the Religions of the West (Anchor Bible Reference Library), is scheduled to be published in December 2003.

Peter Richardson (Toronto), chair. B.A., B.D., Ph.D., FRAIC
The Chair of the THE GOSPEL OF JOHN Advisory Committee, Peter Richardson is Professor Emeritus of Christian Origins in the Department for the Study of Religion, University of Toronto. A graduate of the University of Toronto in Architecture (1957), Knox College (Bachelor of Divinity, 1962), and Cambridge University (Doctor of Philosophy, 1965), Mr. Richardon's Honours and Fellowships include CONNAUGHT FELLOW, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (1998),Honorary Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, (1997), Halbert Fellow, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1995) and Member, Ontario Association of Architects, honorary (1987). His archaeological responsibilities include his role as Site Architect at Yodefat/Jotapata (1994, 1996) and at Khirbet Cana (1999, 2000), while other activities include his involvement with the Ontario Heritage Foundation (Member of Board and Vice-Chair,1994-2000), the Society of Biblical Literature (Chair, Program Committee, 1995-2001), Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses (quondam managing editor,1986-96) and "Studies in Christianity and Judaism," editor (1990 to present).

PUBLICATIONS: BOOKS ONLY
Religion and Architecture in the Roman Near East (London: SCM Press, 2002)
Judaism and Christianity in First-Century Rome (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998; edited with Karl Donfried)
Herod the Great. King of Jews and Friend of Romans (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996)
Law in Religious Communities in the Roman Period: The Debate over Torah and Nomos in Post-Biblical Judaism and Early Christianity (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier Press, 1991; with S. Westerholm)
Gospel in Paul: Studies on Corinthians, Galatians and Romans in Honour of Richard N. Longenecker (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1994; edited with L. Ann Jervis)
Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity, vol. 1 (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1986; editor)
From Jesus to Paul: In Honour of F. W. Beare (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1984; edited with John C. Hurd)
Paul's Ethic of Freedom (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1979)
Israel in the Apostolic Church (Cambridge University Press, 1969)

CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
Building Jewish in the Roman East (Waco TX: Baylor University Press, forthcoming, 2004)
Herod's Architecture (with Aaro Sderlund)
Dear Saul: Letters to Paul
Paul's Corinth

ADELE REINHARTZ B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
Joining the committee as a special consultant on the Gospel of John is Dr. Adele Reinhartz. The Dean of Graduate Studies and Research, and Professor in the Department of Religion and Culture, Wilfrid Laurier University, Dr. Reinhartz is a graduate of the University of Toronto (Honours B.A., Religious Studies) and McMaster University (M.A., Religious Studies, Project: "The Abraham Midrashim" and Ph.D., Religious Studies, Dissertation: "John 20:30-31 and the Purpose of the Fourth Gospel").

Prior to her current appointment, Dr. Reinhartz held a number of academic positions including Associate Dean, School of Graduate Studies, McMaster University (1995-1999) and Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at McMaster University (1987-2002). In addition, she was a Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2000-2001), a Visiting Professor at Harvard Divinity School (1999 Winter semester), a member of the Research Team for the New Media Bible Project of the American Bible Society (1995-2000), and a Visiting Professor in the Department of Jewish History, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1992-93).

Her most recent book is Scripture on the Silver Screen (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2003), and she is currently completing a study of the Jesus film genre, entitled Jesus of Hollywood (New York: Oxford University Press).

PUBLICATIONS: BOOKS ONLY
Scripture on the Silver Screen (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003).
Befriending the Beloved Disciple: A Jewish reading of the Gospel of John (New York: Continuum, 2001). Finalist, 2002 National Jewish Book Award in Jewish-Christian Relations; Winner of the 2003 Frank W. Beare Prize, 2003, Canadian Society of Biblical Studies.
"Why Ask My Name?" Anonymity and Identity in Biblical Narrative (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), Winner of the 1999 Canadian Jewish Book Award for Biblical Scholarship).
The Word in the World, SBL Monograph Series 45 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992).

CAROL OSIEK RSCJ, M.A.T., Th.D.
Carolyn Osiek is a Religious of the Sacred Heart and Professor of New Testament in Brite Divinity School of Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas. Previously, for twenty-six years, she was Professor at Catholic Theological Union, Chicago. She is a graduate of Fontbonne College, Manhattanville College and holds a doctorate in New Testament and Christian Origins from Harvard University. She is also a past president of the Catholic Biblical Association of America.

Included among her professional associations are memberships with the Society of Biblical Literature, Catholic Biblical Association, Chicago Society of Biblical Research, North American Patristics Society and the Societas Novi Testamenti Studiorum.

Currently, Dr. Osiek is working with Kevin Madigan on the translation and commentary on all inscriptions and literary evidence for women as deacons and presbyters in the early church, to be published by Johns Hopkins University Press, a book on women in house churches in early Christianity, with Margaret Y. MacDonald, and participation in the seminar on Roman Burial and Memorial Practices and Earliest Christianity: Reading Texts and Inscriptions in Context, funded by the International Catacomb Society. In the past, her many professional activities included her participation on the Advisory Board, Journal of Early Christian Studies, the Editorial Board, Catholic Biblical Quarterly, the Editorial Board, New Theology Review, the New Testament Book Review Editor, Catholic Biblical Quarterly, plus her role as a member of the Nomination Committee and at-large delegate to the Council of the Society of Biblical Literature, and participation as Co-chair, Early Christian Family Group, Society of Biblical Literature, to mention just a few.

Academic Publications: Books
Philippians and Philemon. Abingdon New Testament Commentaries. Nashville: Abingdon, 2000.
The Shepherd of Hermas. Hermeneia Commentaries. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1999.
Families in the New Testament World: Households and House Churches, edited with David Balch. Westminster John Knox, 1997
Rich and Poor in the Shepherd of Hermas: An Exegetical Social Investigation. Catholic Biblical Association, 1983.
Silent Voices, Sacred Lives: Women's Readings for the Liturgical Year. Edited with Barbara Bowe, Kathleen Hughes, and Sharon Karam. Paulist Press, 1992.
Beyond Anger: On Being a Feminist in the Church. Paulist Press, 1986.


STEPHEN REID B.A., M.Div., Ph.D.
Dr. Stephen Breck Reid is Academic Dean and Professor of Old Testament Studies at Bethany Theological Seminary and a graduate of Manchester College, Bethany Theological College and Emory University. Prior to his current appointment, Dr. Reid taught for twelve years at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary in Austin Texas (1990-2003) and served almost ten years as associate professor of Hebrew Scriptures and biblical theology at the Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley, California. His teaching career began at the Interdenominational Theological Centre in Atlanta, Georgia.

An ordained minister in the Church of the Brethren, Dr. Reid was associate pastor at Austin Mennonite Church in Austin Texas, as well as an interim pastor at the Fremont Church of the Brethren in Freemont, California and Saint Paul Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Austin. He has served on the Bethany Seminary Board as well as on the faculty as an adjunct professor. Dr. Reid is also a member of the Society of Biblical Literature, the Catholic Biblical Association and the Society for the Study of Black Religion.

A prolific author and editor, Dr. Reid has written numerous papers and publications on a wide variety of subjects for such volumes as the Brethren Encyclopedia, the New Harper Bible Dictionary and the Eerdman's Bible Dictionary.

Dr. Reid has been affiliated with, and honoured by, numerous professional associations including Society of Biblical Literature, American Schools of Oriental Research, Catholic Biblical Association and Pacific Coast Biblical Theological Society. In addition, he is a Board Member on the Pacific Southwest Conference of Christian World Mission.

PUBLICATIONS
Psalms and Practice. Worship, Virtue and Authority, Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 2001.
Uncovering Racism, (Covenant Bible Series), with Kathryn Goering Reid, Elgin: Brethren Press, 1999.
Listening In: A Multicultural Reading of the Psalms, Nashville: Abingdon, 1997.
Prophets and Paradigms: Essays in Honor of Gene M. Tucker. JSOT 2209 Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996 (ed.)
Experience and Tradition, A Primer in Black Biblical Hermeneutics, Nashville: Abingdon, 1991.
Daniel and Enoch: A Form Critical and Sociological Study, Berkeley: Bible Press, 1989


PATRICIA DUTCHER-WALLS B.A., M.Div.,Th.D
The Rev. Dr. Patricia Dutcher-Walls is Professor of Hebrew Scripture and Old Testament at Knox College. She is a graduate of the College of Wooster (B.A., Interdepartmental Social Sciences, with honors, Phi Beta Kappa), Harvard Divinity School (M.Div., Ministry/Biblical Studies, with honors) and Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California (Th.D., Old Testament/Biblical Studies, with distinction).

Her previous academic appointments include positions as Visiting Instructor (Old Testament/Urban Ministry), San Francisco Theological Seminary, San Anselmo, California and Adjunct Assistant Professor (Old Testament), United Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio.

Rev. Dr. Patricia Dutcher-Walls has been involved in the presentation of numerous seminars and lectures of a variety on religious subject matter including her participation as a Visiting Professor in a Masters Level Intensive Course on Social Injustice Ancient Israel at the Seminario Evangelico Teologia in Matanzas, Cuba. In addition, she presented a lecture entitled Sociological Study of Iron Age Israel at the Tel Rehov Archeaological Excavation under the auspices of Hebrew University, Israel.

PUBLICATIONS (recent)
Jezebel: Portraits of a Queen. Interfaces. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, forthcoming.
The Circumscription of the King: Deuteronomy 17:16-17 in Its Ancient Social Context. Journal of Biblical Literature 121 (2002): 601-616.
Exegetical Articles on 2 Samuel Lectionary Passages. In The Lectionary Commentary: Theological Exegesis for Sundays Texts. Grand Rapid, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2001.
The Commandments: For a Blessed Life. Kerygma Resource Book. Pittsburgh: Kerygma Program, 2000.
Joash. Jehoiada. Jehosheba. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by Allen Myers and David Noel Freedman. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000.
Sociological Directions in Feminist Biblical Studies. Social Compass 46 (1999): 441-453.
The Social Location of the Deuteronomists: A Sociological Study of Factional Politics in Late Pre-Exilic Judah. In Social-Scientific Old Testament Criticism, pp. 341-357. Edited by David J. Chalcraft. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997. [Reprint of 1991 JSOT article.]
Narrative Art, Political Rhetoric: The Case of Athaliah and Joash. JSOT Supplement Series 209. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996.


CHARLES HEDRICK B.A., B.D., M.A., Ph.D.
Dr. Charles Hedrick is Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies (2000) at Southwest Missouri State University, where he has taught courses in Christian Origins since 1980. He is a graduate of Mississippi College (B.A.), Golden Gate Southern Baptist Seminary (B.D.), University of Southern California (M.A.) and Claremont Graduate University (Ph.D.) Previous academic appointments include positions as Assistant Professor of Religious Studies, Wagner College, Staten Island, New York, and Lecturer in Religion, Claremont Graduate University.

A former United States Army Reserve Chaplain (Colonel), he retired in 1994 receiving that organizations highest peace-time honor, the Legion of Merit. Over the course of his illustrious career, he has been honoured with numerous awards including the John G. Gammie Distinguished Scholar Award, presented by the Southwest commission on Religious Studies (1998), the Southwest Missouri State University Distinguished Scholar Award (1991-2000), National Vice President (1987-88) and National President (1988-89) of the National Association of Baptist Professors of Religion, a National Endowment for the Humanities, Summer Stipend (1994), a National Endowment for the Humanities Research Conference Grant (1982) and the Mills Fellowship, Claremont Graduate University (l97l-73), to mention only a few.

He has been an active member on a number of Boards including the Society of Biblical Literature Council, At Large Representative (1995-1997) and Polebridge Press (beginning 1988). Dr. Hedrick has consulted on several religious endeavours including a Multi-Media Project for the American Bible Society (1996-2001) and the Endowment for Biblical Research, New Testament Language Project (Cambridge, MA), 1995-1998. He maintains memberships in numerous professional societies including the Society of Biblical Literature, the International Association for Coptic Studies, the National Association of Baptist Professors of Religion, the Studiorum novi testamenti societas, the Egyptian Exploration Society, and The Jesus Seminar.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS - BOOKS
With Paul Mirecki, The Gospel of the Savior. A New Ancient Gospel (Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge, 1999).
When History and Faith Collide. Studying Jesus (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999).
Parables as Poetic Fictions: The Creative Voice of Jesus (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994).
The Apocalypse of Adam: A Literary and Source Analysis (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, l980).
(With James E. Goehring, Jack T. Sanders, and Hans Dieter Betz)
Gospel Origins and Christian Beginnings. In Honor of James M. Robinson (Sonoma, CA: Polebridge Press, 1990).
(With James E. Goehring, Jack T. Sanders, and Hans Dieter Betz)
Gnosticism and the Early Christian World. In Honor of James M. Robinson (Sonoma, CA: Polebridge Press, 1990).
The Historical Jesus and the Rejected Gospels (Semeia 44; Atlanta: Scholars Press, l988).
Nag Hammadi Codices XI, XII, XIII (Nag Hammadi Studies 28; Leiden/New York/Kbenhaven/Kln: Brill Press, l990).
(With Robert Hodgson, Jr.) Nag Hammadi, Gnosticism, and Early Christianity, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, l986).

He has also published numerous monographs and articles in professional journals and collections of essays. His most recent book, Jesus and His Critics. Seeking the Voice of the Parable (Westminster), is currently in the press.

BRUCE WALTKE A.B., Th.M, Th.D, Ph.D.
Dr. Bruce Kenneth Waltke is Professor of Old Testament at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando and Professor Emeritus at Regent College, Vancouver. He is a graduate of Houghton College (A.B.), Dallas Theological Seminary (Th.M., Th.D. in Greek and New Testament) and Harvard University (Ph.D., in Ancient Near Eastern Languages and Literatures).

He has held numerous academic posts including Professor, Old Testament Exegesis Semitic Languages, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas; Professor, Old Testament, Regent College, Vancouver, B.C; Professor, Old Testament, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, PA; Professor, Old Testament, Regent College, Vancouver, B.C.; Professor Emeritus, Regent College, Vancouver, B.C. and Professor, Old Testament, Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, FL.

Over the course of his distinguished career, Dr. Waltke has received numerous awards and accolades including Alumnus of the Year, Houghton College(1988-1989), Outstanding Alumnus Award, Houghton College (1982), Evangelical Theological Society, President (1975), William Anderson Award in Graduate Research (1958), Summa cum laude, Dallas Theological Seminary (1956), Lewis Sperry Chafer Award in Bible Exposition (1956), William Jenning Solomon Award in Old Testament (1955) and Magna cum laude, Houghton College (1952). In 2000, Dr. Waltke was further honoured with the publication of The Way of Wisdom, Essays in Honor of Bruce K. Waltke, (eds. J.I. Packer, and Sven K. Soderlund). In 2002, the Evangelical Christian Publisher's Association honored his commentary on Genesis with their "gold medallion book award" as the best reference work and commentary in that year.

He has appeared as a Guest Lecturer at a number of prestigious educational institutions such as Columbia International University, Erskine University, Drew University, North American Baptist Theological Seminary, Vancouver School of Theology, Columbia Bible College and Wheaton College, to note just a few. Dr. Waltke served as an Area Supervisor at the excavations at Gezer, Israel and also the Director of field study trips to the Middle East and the Classical World.

Since 1974 he has served on the Committee on Bible Translation, which produced the text of the New International Version of the Bible. He has authored numerous books and articles on religious studies, and has served as both editor and contributor on a variety of additional works.

PUBLICATIONS: Books only
Creation and Chaos, 1974.
Biblical Criticism: Historical, Literary and Textual, by R.K. Harrison, B.K. Waltke, G. Fee, D. Guthrie.
Micah, in Tyndale Commentary Series, Old Testament, Leicester: InterVarsity Press, 1988.
An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Bruce K. Waltke and M. O'Connor, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
Micah in An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. The Minor Prophets. ed. Thomas Edward McComiskey. Vol 2 (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1993, pp. 591-764).
Joshua and Micah in New Bible Commentary, 4th edition. eds. D.A. Carson, R.T. France, J.A. Motyer, G.J. Wenham. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994.
Wisdom Literature in The Face of Old Testament Studies. A Survey of Contemporary Approaches, eds. David W. Baker and Bill T. Arnold, Grand Rapids, MI, Baker Books, 1999
Genesis: A Commentary, With Cathi J.Fredricks, Zondervan, 2001.
Finding the Will of God: A Pagan Notion?, Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2002

FORTHCOMING:
Commentary on Proverbs Eerdmans Publishing Co., New International Commentary on the Old Testament, 2003


TONY MICHAEL B.A., M.A., Ph.D
Tony Michael is a Ph.D candidate (Religion), majoring in Biblical Studies at the University of Toronto, and a specialist in Septuaguint studies. He received his Bachelor of Arts (University College) and Master of Arts (Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations) from the University of Toronto.

He has lectured on Old and New Testament studies, World Religions, and Religion and Film at a number of prestigious educational institutions including York University, Wilfred Laurier University and the University of Toronto. In addition, in 1986, Mr. Michael led a professionally designed two-week tour of Israel.

Throughout the course of his academic career, Mr. Michael has been actively involved in research and scholarly conferences. He has been recognized with numerous honors including a University of Toronto Open Doctoral Fellowship (1992, 1993,1994), The Kathleen Beatty Adamson Scholarship in Biblical Hebrew (1982), and The W. R. Taylor Memorial Scholarship for Near Eastern Studies (1982).

Mr. Michael is a member of a number of academic and religious studies associations including the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies, the Catholic Biblical Association of America, the American Academy of Religion and the Society of Biblical. He has also actively participated in a number of organizations including executive positions with the American Academy of Religion/Eastern, International Region and the American Academy of Religion Group: Religion, Film and Visual Culture, to mention just a couple.

PUBLICATIONS:
Books
New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS). The Book of Baruch, forthcoming (Oxford Press), 2005.
Encyclopedia Articles
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Press), 2000. S.v. Unleavened Bread, Holiness Code, Lord of Hosts, Og, and Scroll.
Journal Articles
The Journal of Religion and Film, Vol. 5, No. 1, April 2001. (http://www.unomaha.edu/ ~wwwjrf/girard.htm) On the Pedagogical Benefits of Using John Woos The Killer as a Model of Ren Girards Theory on Religion and Violence. With Ken Derry.
Selected Book Reviews
The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, forthcoming: Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S. J., The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christian Origins, Rapids/Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2000. Critical Review of Books in Religion, 1999: Explorations in Theology and Film: Movies And Meaning. Edited by Clive Marsh and Gaye Ortiz. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1997, pp. 286. Critical Review of Books in Religion, 1998: Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner. By Paul M. Sammon. New York: Harper Paperbacks, 1996, pp. 441.

Board of Directors

Steven C. Small
Chairman of the Board

Dr. Steven Small is a successful entrepreneur who has acted as a founder, investor and director of many public and private companies including Newcourt Credit Group, Denbridge Capital Corporation, Knowell Therapeutics and Capital Partners Corporation. Trained as a dentist with a specialty degree in Anaesthesiology, Dr. Small created a highly successful professional partnership as founder and managing partner of the largest dental group of its kind in North America. Dr. Small has participated in sourcing, analysis, negotiation, structuring, financing, management and exiting from a wide variety of investment sectors during the spectrum of investment cycles for over 20 years.

Maurice J. Colson
Director

Mr. Maurice Colson has held a number of senior positions in the financial services industry, where he has worked for over 25 years. He has served as Vice-Chairman of Brenark Securities, Executive Vice President of Dominick and Dominick and was one of the original partners and shareholders of First Marathon Securities. With an MBA from McGill University and post-graduate work at Oxford, Mr. Colson has had a focus on investment banking in a variety of industries including mining, oil & gas, technology and entertainment. Mr. Colson also serves as a director of Landmark Global Financial Corporation.

Peter Richardson
Chairman, Advisory Committee
Director

Dr. Peter Richardson is Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto where he is part of the Christian Origins specialist program. His past positions include principal of University College at the University of Toronto, President of the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies, Halbert Fellow at the University of Jerusalem and Managing Editor of Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses. He is currently the Editor of “Studies in Christianity and Judaism” and is a prolific writer and lecturer in early Christianity and Second Temple Judaism. Professor Richardson holds a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Toronto; a Bachelor of Divinity from Knox College, Toronto; and a Doctor of Philosophy from Cambridge University.

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